Bmw management rules were introduced in our country on 20 July 1998 as part of the Environmental Protection Act of 1986. This was followed by amendments in 2000 and draft amendments in 2003 and 2011. According to these rules, BMW was divided into ten categories (later reduced to eight). Several categories of waste were disposed of in the four colour-coded bags. This was very confusing and difficult to remember, especially for the housekeeping staff, who were the weak link in BMW`s management.5 Occupants had their own processing facilities (such as incinerators, burial pits, etc.) for bmw`s final disposal. It was found that up to 82% of healthcare facilities did not have credible BMW management or needed significant improvements7, posing a threat to the public and the environment. The rules on the disposal of biomedical waste were first introduced in our country on 20 July 1998. Subsequently, the rules were regularly updated and amended in 2003 and 2011. The latest biomedical waste management rules of 2016 and the (amendment) rules of 2018 were an update and simplification of BMW`s disposal compared to the previous version to keep up with changes in healthcare requirements. Although comprehensive, many medical devices/products/kits have not been mentioned, even in the latest regulatory changes.
Therefore, this article aims to highlight the main points that need to be known to all health care workers and the grey areas that need to be clarified and included in the rules for the above rules to be complete. Previous studies have reported that health workers in our country are not fully aware of the proper separation of BMW and their subsequent elimination. Awareness of the handling and disposal of BMWs is increasing worldwide.5 A wide audience is needed in our country, as studies from different parts of our country show, suggesting that gaps in knowledge and gaps in attitudes and practices still prevail to an alarming degree among different categories of health workers.4, 5 BMW`s management guidelines have been changed frequently, 1, 6 In addition, the lack of self-updating has contributed to the increase in the knowledge gap. The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has tasked various agencies with overseeing compliance of the country`s biomedical waste management facilities. With bmw management rules, 2016, the Indian government has tried to simplify BMW management in our country. The final disposal of BMW, which required a lot of maintenance-intensive infrastructure, was a nuisance to healthcare facilities, which was eliminated by the provision of CBMWTF. With simpler color-coded categories, updating knowledge about the same thing, and implementing BMW in the field, separation at the source by healthcare workers remains the biggest challenge.1 Widespread awareness, continuing education programs, and audits need to be promoted to raise awareness of the threats posed by BMW`s mismanagement and improve practices across the board. the domains of health facilities.
unify. Yes, the reformulated rules for biomedical waste management are expected to change the way India treated this waste – How? In addition, on the 16th. In March 2018, the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Climate Change published the 2018 Biomedical Waste Management (Amendment) Rules.9 These amendments corrected typographical errors, updated non-infectious waste regulations, and reduced the recommended concentration of sodium hypochlorite to 10% to 1% to 2%, as described in the existing literature.6 These changes have been discussed in Table 2. (Note: Given the rules shared above, students should understand the important aspects of these rules for the UPSC preliminary exam and the main exam.) To address these issues, the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Climate Change notified new BMW management rules on 28 March 2016 under the Environmental Protection Act 1986.8 The scope of these rules covers all facilities that produce BMWs, such as vaccination camps, surgical camps, first aid rooms, etc. All health facilities of the armed forces fall within the scope of these rules. cDDG (Pension), DGAFMS Office, Ministry of Defence, New Delhi, India HCF: Healthcare Facility, ETP: Wastewater Treatment Plant, CBMWTF: BMW Joint Processing Plant, PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride, LAT: Latex Agglutination Test, ICMR: Indian Council of Medical Research, ICT: Immunochromatographic Tests, BMD: Broth Micro-dilution, IABP: Intraaortic balloon pump, SPCB: State Pollution Control Board. However, many medical devices/products/kits have not been mentioned in Annex I of the 2016 BMW Business Rules. These missing/ambiguous elements included grey areas. A workshop entitled “Workshop on Gray Areas in Schedule-I, BMW Management Rules, 2016” was held on 25 September.
September 2017 organized by the Government of India, the Office of the Medical Superintendent and Safdarjung Hospital, as well as vardhman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi.10 participants from various health facilities, including the medical services of the armed forces, discussed these grey areas in detail, and the final edition regarding their separation and elimination is compiled in Table 3. Table 3 shows that although different types of solid and polluted waste are disposed of in yellow bags, the final disposal is different for each. Laboratory waste, especially live cultures and vaccines, must be pre-treated before disposal. All recyclable plastic waste must be separated in red bags, as the final disposal after sterilization is an energy recovery. Needles should be disposed of in white containers and syringes should be discarded in red. However, syringes with solid needles should be discarded in a white container. With the exception of blood bags, only non-chlorinated plastic materials and bags should be used. In places where the CBMWTF does not exist and where BMW`s internal treatment is to be continued, they would continue to do so in accordance with the previous guidelines; with operating and exhaust emission standards in accordance with Annex II of the BMW Management Rules, 2016.
Biomedical waste (BMW) is all waste generated during the diagnosis, treatment or vaccination of humans or animals or in the research or use of biological or health camps.1 It concerns all persons and institutes that produce any form of BMW, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose or handle. On average, the waste generation rate in hospitals is between 0.5 and 2.0 kg/bed/day, which corresponds to about 0.33 million tonnes per year.2 Across the BMW, about 75% and 90% of the waste is non-hazardous or general health waste. The remaining 10% to 25% of BMW is considered dangerous and, if not handled properly, it can spread highly contagious diseases, the most dangerous of which are hepatitis B, HIV-AIDS and hepatitis C, posing a serious risk to the health of current and future generations. It is also a threat to the environment that causes air, water and soil pollution.3, 4 (Note: Students should read about dioxin and furans and must have a basic idea from the perspective of the UPSC preliminary examination) b Graduate Specialist (Community Medicine) and Commanding Officer, SHO, Amritsar Cantt, India According to figures from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), about 146 tons per day of incremental BMW are produced in the country due to diagnostic activities, The treatment and quarantine of COVID-19 patients generated about 616 tons per day of biomedical waste (BMW) in the country in 2019. To complete your preparation for the upcoming exam, check out the following links: Aspirants would find this article very useful for preparing for the IAS exam. The main changes are: (1) the removal of several categories and the maintenance of only four color codes (2) that no resident has been allowed to set up an on-site treatment and disposal facility when the maintenance of a joint biomedical waste treatment plant (CBMWTF) is available at a distance of 75 km, and (3) changes in the form of accident reporting, authorization, annual reports and appointment. The main differences between the BMW Business Rules published in 1998 and 2016 are listed in Table 1. aExpertisé (microbiology), O I/C Biomedical Waste Management, Army Hospital (R&R), New Delhi, India The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2022.
The draft rules on biomedical waste were published in June 2015 and asked the public for proposals. The proposals/objections received were then reviewed by the Working Group of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change and, based on the recommendations of the Working Group, the Ministry published the 2016 Biomedical Waste Management Rules. Environmental protection agencies and pollution control committees (CPCB/PCC) have authorised 202 joint biomedical waste treatment and disposal (CBTF) facilities to collect and dispose of LA BMW, including COVID-19 waste.