Several Islamic countries have civil law systems that incorporate elements of Islamic law.  For example, the Egyptian Civil Code of 1810, which developed in the early 19th century – which is still in force in Egypt and forms the basis of civil law in many countries in the Arab world where civil law is used – is based on the Napoleonic Code, but its main author Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri attempted to integrate the principles and characteristics of Islamic law, take into account the unique circumstances of Egyptian society. The possibility of lengthy pre-trial detention is one of the reasons why the Code Napoléon has been criticized for its factual presumption of guilt, especially in common law countries. Another reason was the combination of judge and prosecutor in one position.  However, the trial did not have a presumption of de jure guilt; For example, the jury`s oath specifically required that the jury not betray the interests of the accused and not ignore the defences. 1. Why did Napoleon believe that a new code of law was necessary for France? The Napoleonic Code even influenced the United States, a country steeped in common law traditions. In 1808, shortly after President Thomas Jefferson purchased Louisiana from Napoleon, U.S. lawmakers in the new territory drafted a code of law largely derived from Napoleon`s Civil Code. This territorial code remains the basis of Louisiana law to this day. 3. What are the important differences between the code and common law systems? In civil law systems where codes exist, the main source of law is the Code, a systematic collection of interrelated articles arranged by subject in a predetermined order.  The codes explain the principles of law, rights and prerogatives and the operation of basic legal mechanisms.
The purpose of codification is to provide all citizens with morals and a written compendium of the laws that apply to them and that judges must follow. Legal texts are laws enacted by a legislator, although they are usually much longer than other laws. The Code does not contain a collection of laws or a catalogue of case law, but general principles as legal norms.  Other important legal systems in the world include common law, Islamic law, halacha and canon law. Germanic codes appeared in the 6th and 7th centuries in order to clearly distinguish the law applicable to the privileged Germanic classes from their Roman subjects and to regulate these laws according to folk law. Under feudal law, a number of private customs were compiled, first under the Norman Empire (Very Old Customary, 1200-1245), and then elsewhere, to record seigneurial and later regional customs, court decisions and the legal principles underlying them. The custumals were commanded by gentlemen who, as lay judges, presided over the seigneurial courts in order to learn about the judicial process. The use of guardians of influential cities quickly became a widespread practice. In accordance with this, some monarchs consolidated their kingdoms by attempting to gather custumals that would serve as the law of the land for their empires, as when Charles VII of France commissioned an official custodium of the law of the crown in 1454. Two important examples are the Custom of Paris (written 1510; revised 1580), which served as the basis for the Napoleonic Code, and the Sachsenspiegel (circa 1220) of the dioceses of Magdeburg and Halberstadt, which was used in northern Germany, Poland and the Netherlands. Napoleon also founded the first public education system in France and funded many public construction projects, including the beautification of Paris. To end a violent conflict with the Roman Catholic Church triggered by the Revolution, Napoleon negotiated a pact with the pope.
The church gave its land to the state. In return, the government paid the salaries of Catholic priests (the France was largely a Catholic country). A striking example of a civil code is the Code Napoléon (1804), named after the Frenchman Emperor Napoleon. The Napoleonic Code consists of three components: “The France during the French Revolution and under Napoleon Bonaparte” An annotated chronology of civil and military events by Richard R. Orsinger. Historically, civil law is the set of legal ideas and systems ultimately derived from the Corpus juris civilis, but strongly superimposed by Napoleonic, Germanic, canonical, feudal and local practices, as well as by doctrinal currents such as natural law, codification and legal positivism. In 1791, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau submitted a new penal code to the National Constituent Assembly.  He stated that he only forbids “real crimes” and not “false crimes created by superstition, feudalism, the tax system, and [royal] despotism.”  It does not list crimes “created by superstition.” .